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It is necessary to distinguish between the two types of ‘recklessness’ propounded in the English legal system before answering the question. The term ‘recklessness’ has been referred to as ‘Cunningham recklessness’ and ‘Caldwell recklessness’ respectively. In Cunningham, the Court of Appeal defined ‘recklessness’ from subjective perspective. The crux of this subjective test is that, a defendant is consciously aware that he is taking a risk of performing a proscribed act , he perceives the consequences that might occur, and he disregards the risk and goes ahead to perform the proscribed act. The Caldwell recklessness is defined as: (i) one is reckless if he does an act which creates an obvious risk of damage; and (ii) he does not give any thought to the possibility of there being any such risk.


A Peak at My Childhood Growing Up

The smell of bacon cooking would wake me up. The kitchen was located next to my room, and from the close distance I can hear the bacon oil frying. But the smell is what would get me out of bed. The tantalizing aroma would make me drool, and after a few minutes, make my stomach feel like I haven’t eaten in ages.

After the usual bathroom ritual, I would get dressed in my school uniform. I went to a private school, and thus we had to dress accordingly: white button up blouse with a collar; navy blue knee-length skirt with pleats; navy blue clip-on tie with the school’s logo; ankle-length white socks; and finally, black, shiny leather shoes. All of these would be ready for me in my room. My grandmother, who primarily raised me, would get up early just to make sure my uniform is in presentable order, or risk me being “punished” at school for showing up dressed like a slob.



A cultural-anthropological analysis, by Tilman Otto Wagner

As cultural-scientific stigmatization of a new moral idea – a new perception of culture itself – we witness a dialectical resumption and new arrangement of pre-Christian-aesthetical, respectively mythological ideals and forms, which can be subsumed as “neo-postmodern”. We witness both in the field of beaux-arts and in the area of more recent poetical-philosophical works a shift towards anthropological discourses of antique origin. The evaluation of the imaginary art production – from a nowadays point of view of a post-colonial redefinition of our history of civilization -, originates from the spirit of prophetic (wise) knowledge, which was to be praised during early modern art history in a profane way, and ultimately found its authorization through the irrationality and absurdity of modernism in form of deconstructive working methods.  

Music in the Early Childhood

-Music in the Early Childhood-

Mario Maxwell Müller – University of Pretoria

Lectured at Universities in Beijing, China

April 2011

1. Keywords

Assessment, Dynamics, Early Childhood Development, Lesson Plans, Music Education, Movement, Music Graphs, Music Technology, Notation, Pitch, Plenary, Resources, Rhythm, Starters, Structure, Timbre

2. Notes to the reader

The author wants to reassure the reader where Wikepedia is given as a reference for a definition in this paper that the researcher made certain to check the information against other sources.

3. Introduction

A child who plays an instrument before he sings may remain unmusical for a lifetime. That is why we encounter so many skilful pianists who have no idea of the essence of music.

Zoltán Kodály

After attending a wonderful event hosted by Mr Dafu Lai on Saturday, 16 April 2011, involving a music workshop for Nursery School teachers, with which I was immensely impressed, I offered to present a lecture on my topic for discussion Music in Early Childhood. Due to my time constraints I decided to present a short paper on the National Curriculum of Music in England and concluded the lecture with a short workshop and not necessarily a formal academic research paper, which would have required more time to compile.  

A follow up study on the work of Dr Tom Balchin – Identifications of the gifted: the efficacy of teacher nominations within the area of Haringey in North London, England

Mario Maxwell Müller
University of Pretoria, South Africa

This research project will be a follow up study of the work of Dr Tom Balchin’s from the University of Brunel and his research Identifications of the gifted: the efficacy of teacher nominations. The focus of this research particularly was to concentrate on the twelve schools in the borough council of Haringey, North London in the United Kingdom. The aim of this study was to evaluate and discuss teachers’ perceptions with a level of consistency in which ways students are identified as G & T with several factors influencing their judgements and proposing what should actually be in place in order to assist schools to make provision and enhance support for students who are identified as G & T. This is a qualitative study, designed to reveal the perspective and opinions of teachers and Co-ordinators related to G & T, and to expose significant areas for further research.


My Pet Tiger

A Tiger of looks and the “Tiger” of a name. Orange in color striped with black. Furry in feel and innocent in looks. Even though that this tiger is still a cub, he has been my best buddy since 2nd grade when I was 7 years old. He listens to me when I am depressed. He gives me the best advice I could have. He doesn’t like to move but we also play games. He gives me moral support in every endeavor. We share ideas in our leisure times and also secrets. But there is one secret that I didn’t dare tell him ever. Because it would hurt his feelings to know that he is only a stuffed toy….

Finding Their Way

My mother was a happy, carefree person. I remember her hearty laugh and fun loving spirit. When she and dad had friends or family over for a visit, they usually ended up around the piano singing Irish songs and all the popular songs of the time.

So it was a total shock when I learned of her childhood after her death. She didn’t talk much about her growing up years and I hadn’t questioned her much.


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